Iranian architecture history
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About Iranian architecture history
Iranian architecture is considered a type of native knowledge that has a long history and is considered one of the most important parts of Iranian culture and art. Architecture is one of the most creative arts and an important part of the identity of any land. By seeing the architectural works, a set of deep and rich cultural and artistic values of every land is revealed; For example, in the tradition of Iranian architecture, arches, quadrilaterals, and central courtyards are significant elements of Iranian architecture. Iranian architecture is influenced by philosophical and cultural foundations and is considered a collective work; Because an architectural work is never formed by one person; Rather, it is the result of the work of tens, hundreds or thousands of people to shape a building.
Architecture shows how the people of any country look at the world around them. Therefore, architecture is much more than building buildings and is considered the foundation of life. Many of Iran’s sights are considered unique architectural masterpieces.
What is Iranian architecture?
Compared to the architecture of other countries in the world, Iranian architecture has a special value, and features such as appropriate design, accurate calculations, the correct form of covering, compliance with technical and scientific issues in the building, lofty porches, tall columns, and finally various decorations are signs of its glory. The characteristics of Iranian architecture in general include introversion, avoidance of futility, people-centeredness, self-sufficiency and materialism. In the following, we will explain and describe the effect of these five indicators on Iranian architecture.
History of Iranian architecture
The age of art in Iran is as old as history, and architecture is considered one of the oldest arts. The prosperity and elevation of architecture in Iran since ancient times is proof of this claim; Because Iran is one of the first centers of urban planning, dam building and engineering. For the first time, Iranians made bricks and used them in architecture; Its very old example is in the temple of Chaghazanbil located in Shush. Perhaps it is possible to estimate the age of human architecture with this work. In this way, historical monuments, ancient buildings and numerous villages can be seen everywhere in Iran; The works that have been found among the archaeological and oriental writings show that architecture has existed in this region since five thousand years ago.
The evolutionary course of Iranian art, including architecture, is rooted in historical events and climatic nature of Iran. The cultures of conquerors and conquerors who entered Iran. Undoubtedly, they have an important contribution to the architectural culture of this region. Customs, religious ceremonies, spirit and morals, thoughts and opinions of generations have a clear reflection in Iranian architecture, and this reflection can be found not only in huge buildings, but also in small works. Iranian architecture in different times from the beginning of the era of the empire of the Medes had great splendor and progressed over time. At the end of this historical stage, the architecture of the Islamic period, with equipment and taste in the Sasanian style, had such an effect that it is rare in the world. In general, the history of Iranian architecture can be divided into several periods.
Iranian architectural styles
Iranian architectural styles are divided based on pre-Islamic, post-Islamic and modern Iranian architecture. In general, pre-Islamic styles are Persian style and Parthian style, and post-Islamic architectural styles are divided into Khorasani style, Razi style, Azari style and Isfahani style. Westerners use the names of Umayyad and Abbasid styles for Islamic styles. After these periods, the architecture from the middle of the Qajar period and then the Pahlavi period and after the revolution of 1357 is called contemporary architecture.
Iranian architecture before Islam
The Persian style was the dominant architectural style of Iran during the Achaemenid period, and Pasargad, Silk, Chaghazanbil, and Takht Jamshid are examples of this style. Persian style is considered the first architectural style of Iran and covers from the Achaemenid period to Alexander’s attack on Iran, i.e. from the 6th century BC. The name of this style is derived from the Pars family, who ruled the vast country of Iran in those days.
The Parthian style is the name of one of the Iranian architectural styles related to the Parthian period. The characteristics of the party style include diversity in designs and the use of different organs, pairing in places of worship and reception palaces, and anti-pairing in residential palaces and houses, and of course, introverted.
Iranian architecture after Islam
The first examples of Islamic art and architecture in Iran were formed in the Khorasan region, and the model of its mosques is an imitation of the Nabi Akram (PBUH) mosque in Medina. In order to build this mosque, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) ordered to get the dead stones from the nearest mountain and stack them dry or without mortar.